WELCOME TO NEW BRUNSWICK
Written by Wendy Williams (a.k.a. Mom)
New Brunswick is one of the three Maritime Provinces. It is named after the German duchy of Brunswick Lunenburg. The capital city is Fredericton. Fredericton, Dieppe, Bathurst, Miramichi, Edmundston and Campbellton are the main urban centres.
New Brunswick is bounded on the north by Quebec and to the west, by Maine, U.S.A. New Brunswick’s rock foundation (extending from S.E. U.S.A. to Newfoundland) was formed in the Palaeozoic Era. Topography varies from mountain-like northern uplands, to gently rolling hills in the centre, to sharp hills and tidal marshes in south-east lowlands. The soil tends to be thin and acidic except for along the upper St. John River and the Fundy Lowland. About 5% of the land is suitable for agriculture.
A large variety of forest trees grow: spruce, fir cedar, white pine, maple, ash, elm and oak to name a few. The province is considered to have one of the best forest conservation systems in Canada. New Brunswick has an extensive river system. The larger cities are located by the rivers. The largest lake is Grand Lake.
The earliest inhabitants of New Brunswick were the Mi’kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy. These people had contact with European trade since the 16th century. This made them dependent on European technologies, but also victims of European diseases. After the American Revolution, many loyalists moved to the shores of New Brunswick. Other inhabitants were: French, English, Irish and Scottish. Struggles over land claims and culture resulted in the expulsion of the French Acadians from their new homeland about 1775.
Industry in the province depends on forestry cultivation, potato growing, fruit, berries and floriculture. Ores and minerals to be found are: zinc, lead, copper, coal, limestone, gypsum, zinc, silver, lead and oil bearing shale. Natural gas production, pulp and paper mills, a nuclear power plant and fishing also provide employment.
Both fresh water and salt water fisheries yield lobster, crab, shrimp and herring. The main fishing areas are: Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Northumberland Strait and the Bay of Fundy.
Some famous literary and historical figures from New Brunswick are: Bliss Carmen, Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, Desmond Pacey, Alden Nowlan and Antonine Maillet. Artists include: Miller Britain, Alex Colville and Jack Humphrey.
Fundy and Kouchibouguac are two National Parks to explore in New Brunswick. Two provincial parks are Mount Carleton Provincial Park and The Rocks Provincial Park. Tourists may visit the Reversing Falls at St. John’s, potted plant shaped rocks at Albert County’s Fundy Coast and the tidal bore of the Bay of Fundy. Heritage sites can be enjoyed at Kings Landing (Fredericton) and the Acadian Historical Village (Caraquet). There is a new archaeological site at Mud Lake Stream and many other museums and historic fortifications throughout the province. Visit the beautiful Canadian province of New Brunswick.